Angiofibroma of the Vagina Presenting with Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding

Case Reports in Obstetrics & Gynecology
10 Aug, 2019 ,

A 17-year adolescent nulligravid girl presented with a history of irregular vaginal bleeding of two-year duration and history of lower abdominal swelling; on examination, she had pale conjunctiva, 20-week sized firm, irregular, nontender abdominopelvic mass, and a firm huge anterior vaginal wall mass, with difficulty to reach at the cervix and hemoglobin of 9.7 gm/dL, and a diagnosis of cervical myoma plus anemia was made, which was supported by imaging studies. Finally, it was found to be angiofibroma of the vagina.

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A 17-year-old adolescent nulligravid girl whose last menstrual period was four days back referred with the diagnosis of low lying myoma after being transfused with four units of blood. She presented to the Gynecology Outpatient Department on 22 July 2018, with history of irregular vaginal bleeding of 2-year duration.

She gives history of lower abdominal swelling which was small initially and progressively enlarged to attain the current size for the last 13 months. She is sexually active but not married. She has no history of abdominal pain, urinary, or bowel complaint, has no bleeding from other sites, and has no significant past medical and surgical history noted.

On examination, patient was conscious, coherent with blood pressure of 100/60 mmHg, pulse 80 /min, and temperature normal and has pale conjunctiva, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems normal. Abdominal examination revealed 20-week sized nontender, firm, irregular, fixed, and lower border unreachable mass. On vaginal examination, a firm huge nontender growth attached to the anterior vaginal wall. It was difficult to reach at the cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical myoma was made.

Her blood investigations on arrival showed hemoglobin of 9.7 gm/dL and were transfused one unite blood and the hemoglobin elevated to 10.7 gm/dL. Ultrasonography showed an empty uterus with normal size echotexture and pushed up in to the abdomen. There is 10 by 12 cm hypoechoic mass arising from the cervix filling the vaginal canal with these the diagnosis of cervical myoma was made. The diagnosis necessitated a Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis which helped to know the extent of the mass and reported hypodense contrast-enhancing mass seen on the uterus arising from the cervical region measures about 10.3 cm by 14.4 cm. The mass grows down into the vagina and concluded with the diagnosis of contrast-enhancing cervical mass likely myoma.

Understanding the complexity of her surgery and possible postoperative morbidity and mortality, surgical, anesthesiology, nursing, and recovery room teams was assembled with the gynecologic oncology team. She was prepared for elective laparotomy the day before the surgery. On 18 August 2018, the patient was taken to operating room, after the general anesthesia given; she was positioned in a supine position. The abdomen cleaned with povidone iodine and draped with sterile towels and midline vertical incision was made. Intraoperatively, bilateral fallopian tubes and ovaries, the uterus, and urinary bladder grossly look normal; there is 10 cm by 15 cm sized firm mass between the vagina and the lower uterine segment.

Vesicouterine peritoneum incised the bladder reflected away from the lower uterine segment and upper vaginal wall, about 4 cm vertical incision was made on proximal anterior vaginal wall, and dissection of the mass away from the anterior vaginal wall was tried but it was difficult to have a clear cleavage line to excise the whole mass. Then another 6 cm longitudinal incision was made on the posterior vaginal wall; sharp and blunt dissection were made to separate the bulk of mass away from the vaginal wall; finally excision of the mass from the base within 1 cm of normal vaginal tissue was performed to carefully remove a 15 × 10 × 7 cm encapsulated mass.

The anterior vaginal wall, extension of incision on the cervix, and posterior vaginal wall closed separately with vicryl number 0 in two layers. Hemostasis was secured, correct count was reported, the fascia and skin were closed using delayed absorbable stitch. The surgery was completed after 2hrs and 20 minutes.

The excised mass was sent for histopathological examination; the patient recovered completely and discharged on 6th postoperative day. The final pathological diagnosis of the mass was vaginal angiofibroma