A prospective observational study conducted by the Heidelberg University aims to assess the presence and development of diabetic complications in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, as well as pre-diabetics. The researchers aim to find out new metabolic mechanisms or new risk factors in the development of complications.
Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years to 75 Years (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: Yes
Sampling Method: Non-Probability Sample
Study Population comprises patients with Diabetes, patients with pre-diabetes, and healthy controls. In total, 500 participants shall be enrolled and observed for 10 years.
Inclusion Criteria Age between 18 and 75 years Persons with manifest diabetes mellitus type 1 or type 2 and diagnosis according to DDG guidelines 2011, that is HbA1c of 6,5 percent or higher after exclusion of false values, more than 200 mg per dl two hours after glucose in the oGTT, fasting glucose more than 126 mg per dl, spontaneous glucose more than 200 mg per dl at least twice Healthy persons without diabetes or impairment of glucose metabolism in the oGTT according to DDG guidelines 2011 fasting plasma glucose less than 100 mg per dl and 2 hour plasma glucose less than 140 mg per dl Pre diabetics with impaired fasting glucose between 100 mg per dl and 125 mg per dl, or impaired glucose tolerance with 2 hour glucose values between 140 and 199 mg per dl in the oGTT, all values from venous plasma
Exclusion Criteria General exclusion criteria Secondary types of Diabetes, ADA criteria type 3 B H Current pregnancy Acute infections or fever Immune suppressant therapy Severe psychiatric diseases requiring treatment, including personality disorders, schizophrenia, depression Known alcohol or drug dependency Severe heart NYHA stadium IV, kidney, or liver insufficiency Non diabetic liver disease, for example PBC, PSC, Wilsons disease, hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis severe peripheral artery disease stadium IV non diabetic glomerulopathy Cancer or other malignant diseases within the last 5 years Infectious diseases like hepatitis B, C, E, or HIV Other severe autoimmune diseases Current participation in an interventional study Anemia or disorders of bone marrow
Exclusion criteria for MRI Pacemaker or ICD Metallic and magnetic implants, for example mechanic cardiac valves replacements, joint prostheses, clips after vascular surgery, middle or inner ear implants, recent tooth implants, penile implants Waist circumference more than 135 cm Claustrophobia Allergies against MRI contrast Impaired kidney function with a GFR less than 65 ml per min
Exclusion criteria for clamp study Past history of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism Routine laboratory test results less than 80 percent below lower reference value of Ferritin, iron, leucocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrite, RBC, platelets, blood alcohol Level
Exclusion criteria for bioimpedance measurement Pacemaker or ICD
Exclusion criteria for lung function testing Ignoring or non understanding of the instructions Body weight more than 160 kg