Clouse et.al. conducted a study to assess the infection rate, location of infection and pathogen causing infections in intestinal transplant patients among pediatric age group. They concluded that infections post transplant are ubiquitous and high rates of infection from bacterial, viral and fungal sources were seen.
Background: This study reports the infection rate, location of infection and pathogen causing bacterial, fungal or viral infections in intestine transplant recipients at a pediatric transplant center.
Methods: Records from a pediatric center were reviewed for patients receiving an intestine transplant. Positive cultures and pathology reports were used to diagnose bacterial, fungal and viral infections and also to determine location and infectious agent. Risk for infection was assessed based on liver or colon inclusion, and immunosuppression induction, as part of the intestine transplant.
Results: During the study period, 52 intestine transplants were performed on 46 patients. Bacterial, fungal and viral infection rates were 90%, 25% and 75%, respectively. Enterococcus spp. (non–vancomycin-resistant enterococci) were the most common pathogens and were isolated from 52% of patients. Non–vancomycin-resistant enterococci was present in 12% of transplant recipients. Candida spp. were the most common fungal pathogens (23% of patients). Respiratory viral infections were common (44%), and Cytomegalovirus infection rate was 17%. Common sites of infection were bloodstream, urinary and upper respiratory tract. Colon and liver inclusion in the transplant graft was not associated with increased risk of infection, nor was addition of rituximab to the immunosuppression induction protocol.
Conclusions: Postintestine transplant infections are ubiquitous in the pediatric population, including high rates of infection from bacterial, viral and fungal sources. Inclusion of the liver and/or colon as a component of the transplant graft did not appear to greatly impact the infectious risk. Adding rituximab to the immunosuppression induction protocol did not impact on infectious risk.