Research Desk

Apr 02, 2019

Researchers from the National Institute of Mental Health, Maryland, evaluated 1119 adult probands and their 5355 first-degree relatives, they found that suicide attempts were moderately familial and associated with mental disorders, particularly mood disorders. Social anxiety disorder in probands was statistically significantly associated with suicide attempts in relatives.

Apr 02, 2019

Discussion at the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection held in Morioka in Japan renamed the IWATE criteria (a 4-level classification system involving 6 preoperative factors). Japanese and French cohorts were utilized to validate the IWATE criteria by evaluating their association with the procedure-based difficulty classification proposed by the Institut Mutualiste Montsouris.

Apr 02, 2019

Yohei Okada, et al. at the Japanese Red Cross Society Kyoto Daini Red Cross Hospital, conducted a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study for Accidental Hyperthermia (AH) in 12 Japanese emergency departments and identified factors such as age ≥ 75 years, need for assistance with ADL, hemodynamic instability, and hyperkalemia associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with moderate-to-severe AH in urban areas of Japan. 

Mar 31, 2019

This network meta-analysis addresses the need for evidence-based best-practice treatment regimens for HER2-positive breast cancer. They compared the relative efficacy and tolerability of currently available HER2-positive neoadjuvant immunotherapy regimens based on systematic searches of available randomized controlled trials data. Study findings support chemotherapy+trastuzumab+pertuzumab as the optimum neoadjuvant regimen for HER2-positive breast cancer, with the best pathological complete response and acceptable toxicity compared with chemotherapy+trastuzumab. Trastuzumab emtansine+pertuzumab provides a therapeutic option for patients with poor performance status.

Mar 31, 2019

This was a retrospective study to examine whether opioid abuse in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients with opioid abusers (OUD) show an increased risk of complications compared to the non-opioid user's group. Appropriate recognition, pre-surgical optimization, and patient education are essential to mitigate these complications and improve patient outcome.

Mar 31, 2019

The goal of this study was to identify subgroups of adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) at low risk of death within 10 years. Factor analysis for mixed data followed by Ward's cluster analysis was conducted using 25 variables from 1572 French CF adults in 2005.  Seven subgroups were identified by cluster analysis in French CF adults, including two subgroups with low (∼5%) rates of death at 10 years. Study results in large subgroups of CF adults share the low risk of 10-year mortality.

Mar 27, 2019

Jeremias Antinew et al tested pregabalin as for safety and effectiveness as adjunctive treatment in children (aged 4-16 years) with partial-onset seizures, now called focal onset seizures. Criteria for inclusion was experiencing focal seizures and having a stable 1 to 3 antiepileptic drug regimen. Pregabalin 2.5 mg/kg/d, 10 mg/kg/d or placebo were used in the study, with doses increased to 3.5 or 14 mg/kg/d for subjects weighing <30 kg. Common adverse events included somnolence, increased weight, and increased appetite. According to this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, international study, pregabalin 10 mg/kg/d showed effectiveness in reducing seizure frequency in children with focal seizures vs placebo; both doses of pregabalin were generally safe and well tolerated

Mar 27, 2019

Kerry D. Solomon, MD et al examined 78 eyes to study the consequences of an image-guided system plus intraoperative aberrometer with the surgeon's standard of care in the correction of astigmatism using toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) or corneal incisions. They observed almost 0.25 diopter (D) less cylinder with toric IOLs when compared with corneal astigmatic incisions. They found the IOL in 4 eyes more than 10 degrees of absolute orientation from the intended orientation at 3 months. Overall, they suggested no significant improvement in outcomes with combined use of an image-guided system and intraoperative aberrometer when compared with the surgeon's standard of care. They concluded a good agreement in corneal astigmatism measurements between the image-guided system and the optical biometer based on keratometry.

Mar 27, 2019

Stavros Athanasiou et al performed this double-blind randomized 1:1 placebo-controlled trial including 59 women, to assess whether infiltration with ropivacaine 0.5% is effective in controlling postoperative pain in women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy (VH) and pelvic floor repair for prolapse stage > II. In the round and uterosacral ligaments and in the perineal body, 30 millilitres of ropivacaine 0.5% or placebo was infiltrated. Outcomes revealed a significant reduction in postoperative pain and morphine consumption in patients who had local infiltration with ropivacaine 0.5%.

Mar 27, 2019

 Victoria L. Tang, MD et al determined the prevalence and patient characteristics associated with advance care planning (ACP) documentation among older adults. Over 4 million high-risk operations (those that are associated with ≥1% in-hospital mortality) are performed in patients 65 years of age or older annually in the United States. Although operational risk has declined over time, many older adults, particularly those with multiple chronic conditions, remain at high risk of postoperative morbidity (including loss of independence and/or functional decline) and mortality. The American College of Surgeons and the American Geriatric Society therefore jointly recommend ACP for patients, which includes documenting the personal goals and values of a patient, treatment preferences, and surrogate decision makers.