A 44-year-old woman experienced transient numbness of her right sided face and arm and was referred to our unit due to small brain lesions in magnetic resonance imaging, with a possible diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Neurological examination was unremarkable except for plantar reflexes and jerky deep tendon reflexes. Brain magnetic resonance angiography revealed findings typically seen in moyamoya disease, confirmed with digital subtraction angiography. Antiplatelet therapy started, but a few days later, she developed suddenly global aphasia and right hemiparesis (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale/NIHSS 6). Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute infarct in the distribution of the left middle cerebral artery. At her discharge, she was significantly improved (NIHSS 3).
Ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is uncommon in the pediatric population. Initial misdiagnosis is common and there is lacking consensus regarding the optimal approach to treatment. Samantha Bobba et al report an atypical presentation of pediatric conjunctival MALT lymphoma and review the presentation and management of this rare condition.
The dyad of spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema is collectively known as Hamman's syndrome. This rare complication is known to occur during the intrapartum period and its etiology has been linked to the Valsalva maneuver in the second stage of labor. Nitrous oxide inhalation increases the risk. Drishti Madhok et al present the case of a 21-year-old healthy woman who experienced these symptoms after nitrous oxide inhalation during the second stage of labor.
A 62-year-old white man was treated for a giant macroprolactinoma detected during an investigation of a subacute subdural hematoma of the left frontal lobe. The patient was treated with cabergoline for 17 years with a dose ranging from 1.0 mg to 3.5 mg per week. We were not able to normalize his prolactin level, which initially was 14,992 ng/ml and ultimately 1754 ng/ml. The tumor significantly shrank during the follow-up period but persisted. The patient had cardiac valvulopathies that did not worsen. He had an ischemic stroke and developed a psychotic condition that was successfully treated by lowering the cabergoline and administering quetiapine and mirtazapine together. This regimen led to a small increase in the patient’s prolactin that returned to previous levels and remained as such until the last medical evaluation. The tumor continued to shrink and had a cystic degeneration in the last evaluation.
A 15-year-old Chinese girl presented with chest tightness and exercise-induced shortness of breath of 4 months’ duration. Computed tomography revealed a giant mixed-density space-occupying lesion in the left side of her thoracic cavity, originating possibly from the pleura. Radiological findings were inconclusive and failed to exclude a malignant mesenchymal tumor. After excluding malignant tumor with two needle biopsies and identifying the tumor’s feeding blood vessels by computed tomography angiography examination, our treatment plan was, first, embolization of the tumor’s blood vessels by digital subtraction angiography and, second, to remove the tumor by thoracotomy.
A 17-year-old boywas hospitalized with a history of recurrent abdominal pain, fever, and dark-colored urine. Laboratory tests revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated inflammatory markers. Urinalysis was positive for protein and red blood cells, too many to be counted. Abdominal computed tomography showed a segment of the small bowel with wall thickening and signs of possible microperforation. Flow cytometry detected deficiency of CD59 leading to the diagnosis of Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria.
An 83-year-old male had been working as a coal miner and was diagnosed with silicosis at the age of 63. Because he had experienced repeated pericardial effusions, he was referred for a surgical pericardial biopsy to elucidate the cause of his repeated pericardial effusion and to perform pericardial fenestration. Thoracoscopic surgery was performed. The pericardium was resected, and a drain was placed in the left thoracic cavity. Histopathological examination revealed the pericardial degeneration due to silicosis, suggesting that pericarditis and pericardial effusion are related to silicosis.
A 73-year-old female patient with metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma was treated with total thyroidectomy. The operation was followed by four radioiodine therapies over a period of 6 years. At 6 years she developed lung metastasis without radioiodine uptake, one solitary liver metastasis and one solitary right renal metastasis. One year after the first diagnosis of radioiodine resistant lung metastasis the lung metastasis showed progression according to RECIST criteria.
A 60-year-old female presented with constant severe epigastric pain associated with nausea, vomiting, and anorexia for one day. She had no past medical history of alcohol use or hypertriglyceridemia and was s/p cholecystectomy in the distant past. Symptoms had begun three days after starting metronidazole forClostridium difficile colitis. Lipase was > 396, and CT abdomen revealed peripancreatic fat stranding. She was diagnosed with AP, metronidazole was suspected to be responsible and hence stopped, and supportive management initiated. Her symptoms improved rapidly, and pancreatic enzymes normalized within 2 days.
An African American woman presented with neurologic-type symptoms. The appearance of the ground-glass opacities in this case is unique, appearing as discrete well-defined mass-like ground-glass opacities in a peribronchovascular distribution without additional parenchymal findings typically seen in sarcoidosis.